TechSpot

Goodyear's spherical, levitating concept tires can move autonomous cars in all directions

By midian182
Mar 3, 2016
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  1. At this year’s Geneva Motor Show, Goodyear really has re-invented the wheel by unveiling two new tire concepts designed with autonomous vehicles in mind – including a spherical tire that allows cars to drive sideways.

    The Eagle-360 concept is a perfect sphere that attaches to a car by magnetic levitation rather than axles, enabling it to rotate on any axis and move the car in any direction. This should make parking much easier and could lead to smaller car parks. Goodyear added that the tire’s shape will improve passenger safety thanks to the increased maneuverability they give vehicles.

    Additionally, the Eagle-360 tire features integrated sensors that can monitor weather and road conditions, feeding the information back to the car’s autonomous systems. It can also communicate with nearby vehicles or the local traffic system, and is able to extend its life by monitoring its treads and pressure, rotating itself for more even wear and longer mileage.

    Goodyear has used biomimicry when designing the Eagle, which is the imitation of elements found in nature for the solving of complex human problems. In this case, the tire’s 3D-printed design copies that of the brain coral, allowing the tire to stiffen in dry conditions and soften in the wet, altering the way it acts depending on the conditions of a road surface.

    While it may be a long time before the Eagle-360 becomes a reality (if ever), Goodyear’s other concept, the Intelligrip, is said to be already under consideration by car manufacturers.

    Intelligrip may resemble a more traditional tire, but it contains many of the same features as the Eagle-360, including the monitoring sensors and special treads. The tire has also been designed specifically for autonomous vehicles, and can work in conjunction with self-driving cars’ anti-collision systems.

    "By steadily reducing the driver interaction and intervention in self-driving vehicles, tires will play an even more important role as the primary link to the road," says Joseph Zekoski, Goodyear's senior vice president and chief technical officer. "Goodyear's concept tires play a dual role in that future both as creative platforms to push the boundaries of conventional thinking and testbeds for next-generation technologies."

    The company says it’s working with vehicle companies to use some of Intelligrip’s technology as a way of enhancing current car features such as Electronic Stability Control Systems, Brake Control Systems, and Suspension Control Systems.

    Like all concepts, we may never actually see these products in the real world. Hopefully, we will, as an autonomous vehicle that can move in any direction and has magnetically levitating tires sounds pretty cool. Next step: flying cars.

    Permalink to story.

     
  2. VitalyT

    VitalyT Russ-Puss Posts: 3,149   +1,424

    I'd wager this is one technology that will never make it to the market.

    For one thing, a sphere has much less contact with the road than a regular tire. And the only way to increase the contact surface of a sphere is by making it significantly softer than a regular tire.

    But if a magnetic suspension would significantly worsen control of the car on the road, in combination with a softer sphere the driver would feel as much control as one driving a hover-boat, floating along the road, without any feel of control.
     
    Last edited: Mar 3, 2016
  3. madboyv1

    madboyv1 TechSpot Paladin Posts: 1,333   +267

    I could see it working well in lower speed scenarios with autonomous driving, but at higher speeds and especially a human driver, this could potentially be disastrous considering the "skill" of the "average" driver, even if the car is helping you almost entirely.
     
  4. Jeff Re

    Jeff Re TS Member Posts: 18

    This will make for some great frat house pranks.
     
  5. IAMTHESTIG

    IAMTHESTIG TS Evangelist Posts: 954   +273

    How is power applied? Variable magnetic forces acting from the wheel well? This could certainly simplify road vehicles, no more brakes, no more steering racks. Nothing mechanical to break.
     
  6. MannerMauler

    MannerMauler TS Booster Posts: 99   +18

    One big problem I see with this is what if wheel well gets clogged up? I think that it would be much easier to happen with the only open spot being the bottom part where the wheel makes contact. Also, would it not be more expensive? If I'm not mistaken, china is the only real producer of rare earths, and not much is mined because of the radioactive waste that mining rare earths produces (where does the waste come from exactly?), even though it is just as abundant as copper.
     
  7. cliffordcooley

    cliffordcooley TS Guardian Fighter Posts: 8,550   +2,894

    Unless the tire is extremely hard, the contact area can be controlled by air pressure. That's the way it works with current tires, I don't see it changing with spherical tires.
     
    Adhmuz likes this.
  8. SirGCal

    SirGCal TS Maniac Posts: 365   +136

    Not quite to that level. They can take a flat radial tire (not as in no air, but as in not a sphere) and lowering the air a bit from hard tends to make a perfect contact patch. Lower it too much and you get hard contact on the outside and not much in the center. This is why I always test my tire pressure with a piece of chalk and a nice flat piece of parking lot to find the right wear pattern for all four tires (but it takes a lot of time). Very often NOT what mfgr or tires recommend. But that's another topic.

    Still if you take a spherical tire which by nature would have a very tiny contact patch, and 'air it down' it will end up with a round contact patch with no center pressure (bad). If you're rock-crawling, it's fine cause you're wrapping your tire around obstacles, but at speed, on the street, that's bad. I personally do not see this type of tire getting a large enough contact patch compared to current equivalent tires of the vehicles, without being giant spheres which IMHO would be self-defeating.

    How to test tire pressure; If it wears on the outside first, too little pressure, on the middle first too much pressure. The goal is perfectly even contact and pressure and wear.
     
    Last edited: Mar 3, 2016
  9. Technician

    Technician TS Addict Posts: 677   +113

    Airless is a better tech and closer to the highway than this tech is.
    [​IMG]
    Hankook's iFlex recently passed a series of tests for durability, hardness, stability, slalom and speed.

    Airless tires are one step closer to becoming a production reality, after Hankook successfully put its iFlex tire through a series of high speed tests. The iFlex is Hankook's fifth attempt at non-pneumatic tires, and brings with it a number of environmental benefits compared to conventional tires.

    As you might have guessed from the name, non-pneumatic tires don't require any air. Instead, Hankook's iFlex eschews conventional construction for a material that the company says is energy-efficient to manufacture and easy to recycle. The material also has allowed Hankook to halve the number of steps involved in manufacturing.

    In testing, the iFlex was put through its paces in five different categories: durability, hardness, stability, slalom and speed. The electric car Hankook used hit 130 km/h (81 mph) without damaging the tire, and the iFlex was able to match the performance of a conventional pneumatic tire in all the other tests – although further details about the results have not been revealed.

    Hankook isn't the only company testing airless tires. Michelin has opened a North American plant dedicated to production of the Tweel, and Bridgestone has been testing its recyclable, puncture-proof tires on Japanese single person vehicles that are usually used by the elderly.

    Although still in the testing phase, the airless tire has huge potential in production cars. They don't puncture, and depending on the materials used they also have the potential to significantly cut down on the emissions involved in the production and recycling of tires.

    You can already get airless for offroad and agricultural uses.
     
    Adhmuz, Robinson Ochoa and VitalyT like this.
  10. SirGCal

    SirGCal TS Maniac Posts: 365   +136

    I am also very interested in such tech... but feel it's still a ways off from your local Discount Tire. I also wondered how in the heck you mount them and/or do they require special rims...
     
    Robinson Ochoa likes this.
  11. cliffordcooley

    cliffordcooley TS Guardian Fighter Posts: 8,550   +2,894

    I'm going to suggest you haven't thought that all the way through.
     
  12. Uncle Al

    Uncle Al TS Evangelist Posts: 1,662   +769

    Looks like they stole the idea from that movie IRobot .... but if I have to worry about a truck full of robots jumping on my car with ball tires I'm just going to take them back!
     
    Uvindu likes this.
  13. captaincranky

    captaincranky TechSpot Addict Posts: 11,680   +1,875

    This looks like Elon Musk has gotten himself a part time job in Goodyear's marketing department.

    "We have so many orders for these tires, we won't be able to fill them until 2030, and even then you'll have to get on a waiting list". (n) (Spare me).
     
    Last edited: Mar 3, 2016
    psycros likes this.
  14. SirGCal

    SirGCal TS Maniac Posts: 365   +136

    read the rest of the post...
     
  15. Technician

    Technician TS Addict Posts: 677   +113

    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
    Actually there was a robotics company on TED talks a long time ago with a working ball-balancing robot, and it has come a long way since that time.http://data:image/jpeg;base64,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v8NX9rNjMzIGipaJCSfhvCMACvPefgsHBq2OK9L1ysovtpQUawBow+GpNPIeqz+yK81079wtuiG3aFRt0WwcEZMShfCsqHPsjOSVsTRwVp7FGQqiBzAoiFO5R0QRgpVI0LkVZh1CiGasx6lQhae8mk9Vyb7A//AGejyUker7BwCvuNOKUTFTQqs0Yxv8CsMszBwUhl6JBIeSsZprg0cFzXjkuNeSVrVpDjKBjTLlmhbtCxyAuuRgvbvVDGkgmpDiLpzAwRN0Ko6VhLYnuad5rSW9DgR9QFYNvoi1xXGRXxfaDUCppi48OjhxVefVDRjnkvgiLnbxJDgCXH++lV5bZNMmxgOke1tplhbs30vNkbfLXE7t1pvNcKHgBjiiNm02/SMOyljZFG2SE7pBFS+6KGgpUldccctXKeGbZuS+W8k1Q0O3xWezDuAfzcrcM1isnu4A1gNHkRMFCAccQfFQHDPMrzHQFmimgdK0VF9xaHAVZQO8Q54g/4ld1Vmnlgjlle03g+7dbcNGyPj36eI4Z8lO9m9rxdDOnZxNLfYDS40YihqM0OdZnIhsnJwjcsAWbG5QOsTuaO7Iphs6gAPsB5pv8AT+qOPspUZs/RUBxYWrvY2or7L0SGy9EAv2Vq5ETZlyKLtgXOs65kDuqkbHTgSsNIRZeqeLL1VhteSeK8kRX9mC4QKcv6Ju1HJEqL2cc1wsg5qXaDkkZO01pjTPp3VEfsnVQWywhzSw717C7zJyVbWTWOOyRXiL0jsI2cXO5n8I4oDojXl0UT22m77U5jjDIAAGAit1zcg8it09q51N1fBPqXWzR1ntOzija8z2e7FI9jXERF0tQ38Y96CTwpmKFQ2vV99mkjigdVj44pnF2BvMffxIwLailKcc8EU1YtjWaOfaA0NcXPecKlzmOF28c3GjQgH/a+N0sElrIZcjjADWvcDTPKtOC3MspLJe3lLMblL5jVan6JY+NzI2iN7KtewVF9uYJNalwGRJrninavOiDTBGws2Aax1TWrn1mJFTX/AInHjVBxrLHG99vs4cyCKV0TgTWSQBrXDdyBOJBrxxwrS5YNcm2km0CNsbQT7RG2pLWuO7ODxArR1AOakl1Y1dctGaJp7K6IsAcCDSlMa1yIpwXGznkssqQalIUskT+ACi2MnIIGkKJ7TwUr4pB8KiN7kgiIdzCheHc1Ls3KF0b+aBrWuPFcmOL+i5FaYRJwhUAtDKZ/VKJm8/qoLGxS7JV9qDx+qe145/VA90J4KJ1lJ4qR0lOKTbIIvYuqx2lrNabFLtmuBge81LqkNL6m64Z0JNAQtsJceKS1WeOVjo5BeY4UIP8AMD1Q2GWaOx2+IB8Tb1N1wAL4ZD8TcMQPlyNFgBqc+9LEZR7Q90jKvY8l0dHAOjqPE4tbUgm6HU7mdN6GmsNJ7PI97K7xNb8f913BzSMK0/NDNN6wy2nZ7Nzg4DeuuIF7CjgRj5ZYlamWlvcWtWjJbPAINm8tax7CyGLa1lkvjaAF1RQOFQeeCz1n1KfOxjJbPamyYXXNheA0NBqHF2dTSmHDqt99jkEpdazO50lBCG3yXUJMhcRXI4NWj+0KCd0ETbK4xvMzauYS03Ax9RUcK3Vvc8s6Y7Smr72aONngsZjAc0vdMHGpcd+Q1xyw5AOIWc1T0BHZZHSvm2gyjDA6l1zd4PacScaUxAArjXCxp+HScYvS2uUswvDaPIpljj1PdJoGYgbQMdK5gIaG1r4cbrfi78FnLKeFkabTWlJY4LzPctAF3AVcDg0NHCvDsVY1YtMr4dpIczu54tAAqa9a+ipaN0Q6aOOaYAw4OY0nB2JLagfCCTgeQwWiFoFKC7QYAZU6ALJaUSrr6Tajp6pDP0B80RznJlApBaPwj1TDah8v1QIWhRmzMPBSC2g/Cne0/h+qCo6wNXKyZen5Lk0K2xb1SGNnVRbN1d0+RKQkg7wp2I/dFSCNnMqQADIhRh3dOaSVBKB+KvJPB5lQlvUpDH/KKosCnP6qRvfBU9n0+idHZycggr6wzkRhrSayODR0HxH0/NQaM0PHG2oaKnE91Bptt2aMcmE+ZNP+lFLHMC1Z8tCmo5DPachWRvEDJv8AutDM8OLciAScCDwXl2ltIPjBZE9zHGS8S00q27SnqtJqRbZHw1lcXOD3Cp4jCi1tB/S+imzC68C7nRCbPq/DCfdMDeo/RHnz9aqOWSoQZywN2TrRZ/gLdvEOVXgTNHQOLXf+4ur+FUNcQ8TWF8d+vtIY4MvYxyRvLw4N+EFjSa4YIgR1VSonAfKPVNFOSmp1/JISoiPDkuvD5SpG414U48lWntfBuHXmqH1HX1IXEjr5FVtu75h6JHTO6eiCa9Xg5coTaKcv8q5BzndfIJoaOo7gKyJeZolca8R6KbaQ3qJWv6JXeXoConupWv8A8U2JBIOYTBOONPUhVHlvyt/yj9ky+35R2ATaLm26/VObNyJPmhvtLBmfIfumu0gzgw/VB2mXm+xx5Eehr+qmsFr6odb7UHMIuOBBq04kV6+SowWyizVgxpKz1a2atQ+R0QABwLWh1SfOnkj+rTSyzxur43SYEEEXXXTmqWqNqOykFTTaV40xaOHkimkJ6Fm9Ub1OXDgVo34FWSpxmQYWwLpLYoLjDemDj4Y2PeT1IuNHmHu9FAZWqCC0kNe043nA4cAMLtPrXr0SbYciqiRz2pjndD6ppkB4FI97eIP0QOk3hQg07quYRlT80u1aOfkmm0M5n80DXQfgPqoHsaM2vCtPeKVqQOuaqSWgfN+aCvLOwcHDulU8F1xxxaDieZ5LlReJHP6Jt8cx6FK2MfKfVdsmrIY4g/EPqEx8TT8Y+v7K22IcB9E4MHyj0QUfZG0xcPL9yoZ4HZNoB3/NFdi3l+hSthbyTQzkthfmBX0VKaN4rUFbD2cfwpjoAcM00MNJanN5oXbrSDvZO7YHuvRJNEROzaPRU5tU4HdOyzqrtidFazugLgCBewcHCrTTI90XOtYku3nt3cqYdz3Rk6h2QjeBPfFPi1FsA/4LSrpNhDNYI+Dqn1RrR8xdjd7IlZdX7LGKiJgHRoqeyuNcMmgNAyAA/hV0bVBGTmPqluUyRBtf5RNlaenoFUD7pStiJ5KyRXM08gu4/qmhUfZyo4rDXE5cVdPcfzzSl5pTCiugOtVkvcSBwGKrN0SOZ9UXMh5VSbXCt0Y/zmgptgaBQNNO65TmQdP55LkEbLQw/H6iimEzeD/of2QsPrwH6KaG0YZDyUBVrhxcPMfunXvxt+gQv2mlRRLteH1RRJv9zfolYzm4eqFueEoFUQXMZ5hcYjyBQnFOrTGpQFgCOH0UeNcvzQ4vdwcfVK2R4+I9qlATbXkpHtDfFieDf3Q2K0yfMfX90rrY/wCbHqB+oVFt7y44hcGFVm6QkGdPQKRmkjxA9AgmNfNNJcmG2uFSLvokfbCc2t/L8kD/AM0wx9VGLSflH1Vh7mgAkYnIII7rUjmDnVJtx8v1Sbdvy/VApjCURt//AAFQOtVPgPr/ALJo0m35HCiIe6LgEqj/AKpH1HkuVAlryOvknskrngVYjgbSrhQef0SGzsOQoOpUVHA0g1Lmkdj+6s+0NGF30ChbZwMq+qkaSOCDnTtPwgJG0TgQcwfonsa1A1hBwrRTxxjKqaIRnVPZF2UDGRkcCnhp6pRE7n9U8RPGePmgZd7hOpzxTnMfyS7N3IqoiMfLDsoiw9PyVgsd19E13X+d0FZrKZVH1/JPDncBXspo41aiYenfogZZ4uLhQJtpNSktNpJNBkMuqg2yKQDnhRKQCkL1HthyRCY8PNNe8/wJr7TjlmmmbzVDJBzAK5I6cU5LkQx5ccSnMmdT9FE0pwB5qNJW2g1ywUm15FVGxklSUx5KCY1zqmY5rmuOScAVQ5k/MVUgkocOKjEdUl0hBcbIU/bOQ8T0U0b0Fl0vMldtOKYCFyB4kPMpHO6lJeomF6BxmI4pPa3ZJA5Rl4REntGGI+ibthTABRhMDAqJnzCnhCYLQ35RVRkdFwoOCCRoa74VBJE2uRA7qa2yhoDW5nMqhKwkeJNJUhuUzSqg5t0n91yukWW5KZmS5cstpGlK7glXIHxJxXLkCx5p70q5BTkzThmuXKosQqRq5corpOCY7NcuQMUbc1y5VDio5SuXIpClh8S5ciIJfG7v+iWIYLly0gfbVy5ciP/Z
     
  16. psycros

    psycros TS Evangelist Posts: 1,319   +709

    There have been several concepts dating back to the late 80's that simply had the wheels attached like casters, I.e. the wheels on an office chair. Each set of forks holding a tire had its own hydraulics or electric motor which could quickly turn the wheels sideways. The most developed one had semi-round tires and would limit your steering range the faster you drove (I think it would limit you to normal steering at anything above 25 MPH or so). Heck, in Japan they've had small cars with a third wheel for parallel parking for several years now. This kind of tech is really only useful for constrained city driving..you really wouldn't need it on the open road and it probably wouldn't be very safe there, either.
     
  17. Technician

    Technician TS Addict Posts: 677   +113

  18. cliffordcooley

    cliffordcooley TS Guardian Fighter Posts: 8,550   +2,894

    That is what lead me to say what I did about the text I quoted.
     
  19. Thefuturerules

    Thefuturerules TS Rookie

    Yes! Yes! I can't wait for this to be a reality.
     
  20. Uncle Al

    Uncle Al TS Evangelist Posts: 1,662   +769

    TED talk, eh? I will have to check it out, apparently I missed that one!
     
  21. Thrackerzod

    Thrackerzod TS Enthusiast Posts: 40   +30

    Great, now I'll have distracted people playing Candy Crush on their phones coming at me from all directions.
     
  22. Robby-san

    Robby-san TS Rookie

    I don't think simplify is the correct term. It will involve lots of processors, electronics and electrical circuitry. There will be a lot of parts most people will not be able to work on. If anything, it'll become more complex.
     
    cliffordcooley likes this.
  23. Adhmuz

    Adhmuz TechSpot Paladin Posts: 1,648   +521

    Well this could effectively reduce the number of moving parts down to 4, as stated already, but it would require a lot of processing power to do so. Which is alright, as long as it's not made by Volkswagen. To think the 10 way power adjustable seat your sitting in would contain more moving parts then the whole drive train of the vehicle, at least potentially this could be the case one day. For those worried about contact patch, they actually cover that in the video, there will be a layer of foam under the rubber to create a large contact patch, illegibly. Goodyear seems to have put a lot of thought in to this, which is somewhat surprising.

    My concern if this ever becomes a reality, cost to replace, normally you can get a set of tires for about $500, I'd have a feeling these will be in the $500 a piece range if not more. Likely they would be resurfaced similar to truck tires, at least that's the most logical approach in my opinion. Next, what happens when the spheel wells get clogged full of debris? For most people who don't ever go off pavement this isn't a concern, but what about winter? Traction on ice, what happens when the wells get packed full of snow?
     
  24. Raoul Duke

    Raoul Duke TS Guru Posts: 930   +354

    But will it move the company forward? - couldn't resist that one
     
  25. Technician

    Technician TS Addict Posts: 677   +113

    It could lead to a slippery slope of poor desicions.
     

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