Runtime Permissions

This release introduces a new permissions model, where users can now directly manage app permissions at runtime. This model gives users improved visibility and control over permissions, while streamlining the installation and auto-update processes for app developers. Users can grant or revoke permissions individually for installed apps.

On your apps that target Android 6.0 (API level 23) or higher, make sure to check for and request permissions at runtime. To determine if your app has been granted a permission, call the new checkSelfPermission() method. To request a permission, call the new requestPermissions() method. Even if your app is not targeting Android 6.0 (API level 23), you should test your app under the new permissions model.

For details on supporting the new permissions model in your app, see Working with System Permissions. For tips on how to assess the impact on your app, see Permissions Best Practices.

Doze and App Standby

This release introduces new power-saving optimizations for idle devices and apps. These features affect all apps so make sure to test your apps in these new modes.

  • Doze: If a user unplugs a device and leaves it stationary, with its screen off, for a period of time, the device goes intoDoze mode, where it attempts to keep the system in a sleep state. In this mode, devices periodically resume normal operations for brief periods of time so that app syncing can occur and the system can perform any pending operations.
  • App Standby: App Standby allows the system to determine that an app is idle when the user is not actively using it. The system makes this determination when the user does not touch the app for a certain period of time. If the device is unplugged, the system disables network access and suspends syncs and jobs for the apps it deems idle.

To learn more about these power-saving changes, see Optimizing for Doze and App Standby.

Apache HTTP Client Removal

Android 6.0 release removes support for the Apache HTTP client. If your app is using this client and targets Android 2.3 (API level 9) or higher, use the HttpURLConnection class instead. This API is more efficient because it reduces network use through transparent compression and response caching, and minimizes power consumption. To continue using the Apache HTTP APIs, you must first declare the following compile-time dependency in your build.gradle file: android { useLibrary 'org.apache.http.legacy' }

BoringSSL

Android is moving away from OpenSSL to the BoringSSL library. If you’re using the Android NDK in your app, don't link against cryptographic libraries that are not a part of the NDK API, such as libcrypto.so and libssl.so. These libraries are not public APIs, and may change or break without notice across releases and devices. In addition, you may expose yourself to security vulnerabilities. Instead, modify your native code to call the Java cryptography APIs via JNI or to statically link against a cryptography library of your choice.

Access to Hardware Identifier

To provide users with greater data protection, starting in this release, Android removes programmatic access to the device’s local hardware identifier for apps using the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth APIs. The WifiInfo.getMacAddress() and theBluetoothAdapter.getAddress() methods now return a constant value of 02:00:00:00:00:00.

To access the hardware identifiers of nearby external devices via Bluetooth and Wi-Fi scans, your app must now have theACCESS_FINE_LOCATION or ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION permissions:

  • WifiManager.getScanResults()
  • BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND
  • BluetoothLeScanner.startScan()

Note: When a device running Android 6.0 (API level 23) initiates a background Wi-Fi or Bluetooth scan, the operation is visible to external devices as originating from a randomized MAC address.

Notifications

This release removes the Notification.setLatestEventInfo() method. Use the Notification.Builder class instead to construct notifications. To update a notification repeatedly, reuse the Notification.Builder instance. Call thebuild() method to get updated Notification instances.

The adb shell dumpsys notification command no longer prints out your notification text. Use the adb shell dumpsys notification --noredact command instead to print out the text in a notification object.

AudioManager Changes

Setting the volume directly or muting specific streams via the AudioManager class is no longer supported. ThesetStreamSolo() method is deprecated, and you should call the requestAudioFocus() method instead. Similarly, thesetStreamMute() method is deprecated; instead, call the adjustStreamVolume() method and pass in the direction valueADJUST_MUTE or ADJUST_UNMUTE.

Text Selection

When users select text in your app, you can now display text selection actions such as Cut, Copy, and Paste in afloating toolbar. The user interaction implementation is similar to that for the contextual action bar, as described inEnabling the contextual action mode for individual views.

Previous Android version for the Google Nexus 10: