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These are all very good questions that really we don't have answers to yet! That's the exciting part, Valve are claiming it'll run "virtually any" game in Steam. You can see how well games run on Proton by visiting ProtonDB.comVery true, but with Steam OS, I wonder how many Windows games will run on it. I know we can install windows, so that will be an option to make sure it runs any Steam game.
Is Proton even any better than WINE was?
It seems most games do run, the problem people run into is DRM / Anti-Cheat kicks in and boots you from the game. That's where I hope (assuming the Steam Deck sells well enough) some work on Linux will be made by devs, integrate Anti-Cheat into Linux properly, Even if it means specifically SteamOS.
Proton is WINE but with Valve updating it and setting it all up for you, so you don't have to spend months tinkering with 30+ settings and it's all built into Steam, you literally just download your chosen game and start it, no extra setup, basically as easy as Windows now, it's just the DRM / Anti-Cheat stuff really holding it back and of course not ALL games work well with it, ProtonDB.com will show how well certain games work.
Here's something that baffles me slightly. Destiny 2 has a Stadia version, I assume Stadia isn't a bunch of Windows 10 VM's running on Googles cloud? I'm sure they've said it's a custom backend, most likely all Linux based, meaning there's probably a Linux build of the game. Yet there isn't a native Linux version on Steam and Proton cannot run Destiny 2.
Makes you wonder how many games out there do actually have native Linux versions but they're never released to the public.