In this thread, i'll try to describe and answer of some questions about low-level working of laptops. this is about BIOS loading, EC/KBC controllers work,common problems with southbridge faulty etc. i'll be wait for community questions. don't ask me how to unlock dell,HP,IBM laptops, and don't ask me to generate some master passwords. but you can ask me how password systems works in laptops. this particular case for beginning: toshiba tecra 8100,8200. sometimes you can turn on laptop and listen beeps, which points to RAM failure, but you're sure that memory modules are fine. this problem is connected with bad soldering of memory slots. you can see this bad soldering only using binocular magnifier. the solution is resolder memory slots, using micro-soldering equipment.