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In development as the eventual successor to the long-standing New Technology File System (introduced with Windows NT 3.1 in July 1993), Microsoft first added its new "Resilient File System" (ReFS for short, codenamed “Protogon”) to Windows Server 2012, the server version of Windows 8.
It was later added to consumer versions of the operating system with the arrival of Windows 8.1 in October 2013, albeit mainly through storage spaces (virtual drives) and not usable as a bootable partition. Likewise is true for Windows 10 as Microsoft decided ReFS wasn't quite ready to replace NTFS as the default file system.
ReFS brings a long list of new features over its predecessor including automatic integrity checking and data scrubbing, improved structural reliability, removal of the need to run chkdsk, support for longer paths and filenames, as well as support for a maximum file size of 16 exbibytes and a maximum volume size of 1 yobibyte.