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Technology evolution in aviation

By jobeard · 30 replies
Feb 6, 2018
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  1. Self-propelled flight of course begins in 1903 at Kitty Hawk, NC
    Name: Wright Bros Flier

    Circa: Dec 17, 1903. Kitty Hawk, NC - Kill Devil Hill

    Notable facts:
    • First self-powered flight; 120' for 12 sec
    • Created the first wind tunnel to study wing cross-sections and lift. The largest wind tunnel in the world is big enough to test a 737 airplane, and is part of NASA Ames Research Center’s state-of-the-art aerodynamics complex, which has all the same design elements.
    • Began study of Reynolds Numbers, aka air density to explain wing area requirements
    • Asked Renault for an engine, but their's was too heavy - - consequently built their own
    • Had to develop the 'air screw' aka propeller as boats only used trial-n-error
    • Calculated engine RPM and propeller thrust requirements
    • Developed Wing Warpping for roll control - - patient fight with Glenn Cirtuss ensued
    Almost lost:
    After failing to interest the U.S. Army in the aircraft, it was taken to London before WW I,
    presented forsale and also rejected and subsequently stored due to the war. In wasn't until
    1947 that the curator in London called the Smithsonian with the suggestion

    I think I have something that belongs to you ...


    Attached Files:

    Last edited: Feb 6, 2018
  2. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    By 1909, there were others in self propelled flight - - Glenn Curtiss.
    The Wrights sent a warning to Curtiss that they had not given permission for the use of "their" aircraft control system to be used "for exhibitions or in a commercial way". In fact, none of the AEA's aircraft used a wing-warping system like the Wrights' for control, relying instead on triangular ailerons designed by Alexander Graham Bell, which he successfully patented in December 1911. However, in 1913 a court ruled that this technique was an infringement of the Wright's 1906 patent.

    However, by 1913, technology had moved on and the Brothers from Dayton Ohio were now obsolete.
    The movie
    Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines
    has many of the early planes of the Golden Era
    Last edited: Feb 6, 2018
  3. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    The de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth of 1930 is just gorgeous

  4. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    The 1931 Pitcarian Autogyro is a very early form of a helicopter.

    An autogyro (from Greek a?t?? + ?????, self-turning), also known as gyroplane, gyrocopter, or rotaplane, is a type of rotorcraft that uses an unpowered rotor in autorotation to develop lift, and an engine-powered propeller, similar to that of a fixed-wing aircraft, to provide thrust. While similar to a helicopter rotor in appearance, the autogyro's rotor must have air flowing through the rotor disc to generate rotation. Invented by the Spanish engineer Juan de la Cierva to create an aircraft that could fly safely at low speeds, the autogyro was first flown on January 9, 1923, at Cuatro Vientos Airfield in Madrid. De la Cierva's aircraft resembled the fixed-wing aircraft of the day, with a front-mounted engine and propeller in a tractor configuration to pull the aircraft through the air.

    Last edited: Feb 6, 2018
  5. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    The 1933 Staggerwing Beachcraft was an advancement from the biplane, as it was more stable.

  6. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    In 1934, Boeing developed the basic trainer for the Army & Navy [Stearman Model 75]- - many are still flying today.
    Army Colors
    Navy Colors
    Last edited: Feb 6, 2018
  7. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    1935 saw the commercial development of passenger service to the Orient.
    A flying boat named China Clipper made the first trip, and the publicity for that flight caused all flying boats on that air route to become popularly known as China Clippers. In 1927, wetlands on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay were filled to form an airport with an east/west runway, three hangars, an administration building, and a yacht harbor. By 1930, United States Army Air Corps operations referred to the site as Benton Field. Pan Am used the yacht harbor as their California terminal for trans-Pacific flights beginning in 1935. The initial flight carried only air mail, but passenger service began in October 1936, with three Martin M-130 flying boats named Hawaii Clipper (NC14714), Philippine Clipper (NC14715), and China Clipper (NC14716).

    Litte known, but Amelia Earhart's effort to circumnavigate the globe began with an unpublicized flight from Oakland to Miami, Florida, and after arriving there she publicly announced her plans to circumnavigate the globe.

    The airport site included the Alameda Terminal of the First Transcontinental Railroad (California Historical Landmark #440). Pan American World Airways used the yacht harbor as the California terminal for China Clipper trans-Pacific flights beginning in 1935. The China Clipper terminal is designated California Historical Landmark #968.

    Juan Terry Trippe (June 27, 1899 – April 3, 1981) was an American commercial aviation pioneer, entrepreneur and the founder of Pan American World Airways, one of the iconic airlines of the 20th century. He was instrumental in numerous revolutionary advances in airline history, including the development and production of the Boeing 314 Clipper, which opened trans-Pacific airline travel. He foresaw that getting the mail contract would be the means that would lead to passenger service.

    Boeing 314 flying boats Honolulu Clipper (NC18601) and California Clipper (NC18602) joined the surviving Martin M-130s in 1939, and Pacific Clipper (NC18609) and Anzac Clipper (NC18611) extended service to New Zealand and Australia in 1941.

    Martin -130
    Boeing 314 Clipper
    Last edited: Feb 12, 2018
  8. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    Name: Consolidated PBY Flying Boats PBy-2,3,4,5,5a,6a (PBN Nomad)

    Circa: 1936

    Notable facts:
    • Used for reconnaissance and air/sea rescue by all U.S. services.
    • Long range

    • Use every model of the Wright Cyclone engines:
    • 900 hp R-1830-64
    • 1,000 hp R-1830-66
    • 1,050 hp R-1830-72
    • 1,200 hp R-1830-82/92

    • Located the Bismarck At 10:30 on 26 May, 1941, leading to her sinking of Brest.

    Air-sea rescue PBYs called Dumbos retrieved thousands of ditched pilots and
    shipwrecked seamen, often under fire and usually in seas that would have trashed
    a lesser boat. One Dumbo landed three times to pick up downed bomber crews and
    eventually took off with 25 extra men aboard; for that mission, Navy Lieutenant
    Nathan Gordon became the only PBY pilot to be awarded a Medal of Honor.

    Another Cat needed a three-mile takeoff run to lift a total of 63, including its
    own crew, and the pounding probably popped half the rivets in the hull. But the
    record goes to the Australian Catalina that carried 87 Dutch sailors—standing room
    only, thank you—after Japanese bombers mauled their freighter. With 15,000 pounds
    of passengers alone, to say nothing of the airplane’s fuel and crew weight,
    that put the RAAF PBY well over gross, but the Cat’s basic weight-and-balance
    rule was that if the payload hadn’t yet sunk the boat, it would somehow take off.

    [Consolidated Aircraft (and later Convair) had their headquarters in San Diego, California, on the border of Lindbergh Field (KSAN), aptly named as Ryan Aircraft was located on the South side of the runway. Some of its plane manufacturing was done under the name Ryan Aeronautical Company, which under Mahoney built the NYP monoplane for Charles Lindbergh, but this was not the business that later became Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. In July 1927, shortly after Lindbergh's successful flight in the Spirit of St. Louis, the name of this business was changed to B. F. Mahoney Aircraft Corporation.]

    PBY-5A shown here
    Last edited: Feb 7, 2018
  9. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    1937, General aviation's first entry
    Piper Cub J-3
    Last edited: Feb 7, 2018
  10. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    In 1938, Indo-China was in conflict and the A.V.G. flew P-40 Warhawks.
    The First American Volunteer Group (AVG) of the Chinese Air Force in 1941–1942, nicknamed the Flying Tigers, was composed of pilots from the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC), Navy (USN), and Marine Corps (USMC), recruited under presidential authority and commanded by Claire Lee Chennault. The shark-faced nose art of the Flying Tigers remains among the most recognizable image of any individual combat aircraft or combat unit of World War II.

    The group consisted of three fighter squadrons of around 30 aircraft each. It trained in Burma before the American entry into World War II with the mission of defending China against Japanese forces. The group of volunteers were officially members of the Chinese Air Force. The members of the group had contracts with salaries ranging from $250 a month for a mechanic to $750 for a squadron commander, roughly three times what they had been making in the U.S. forces. While it accepted some civilian volunteers for its headquarters and ground crew, the AVG recruited most of its staff from the U.S. military.

    AVG fighter aircraft came from a Curtiss assembly line producing Tomahawk IIB models for the Royal Air Force in North Africa. The Tomahawk IIB was similar to the U.S. Army's earlier P-40B model, and there is some evidence that Curtiss actually used leftover components from that model in building the fighters intended for China.

    Those are Chinese markings

    Planes of Fame, Chino, CA

    A jacket worn by AVG pilots
    Message reads “This foreign person has come to China to help in the war effort. Soldiers and civilians, one and all, should rescue, protect, and provide him medical care.”
    Last edited: Feb 8, 2018
  11. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    With the outbreak of war in Europe, the Army wanted more P-40s, but North American had a better idea -- oh boy, was it!
    Name: North American P51 (NA-73)

    Circa: 1940

    Notable facts:
    • Poor altitude performance from Allison V-1710. Later swapped for Packard V-1650-3,
    • dual stage supercharger which gave superior service at high altitude over Europe.
    • Laminar Air Flow wing ( NAA/NACA 45–100 airfoils, was performed in the University of Washington Kirsten Wind Tunnel) and also seen on the Consolidated Liberator B-24 Davis Wing
    • Addition of the Malcolm Hood (aka canopy) improved rearward visibility (models C & D)
    • The prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed (but unknowingly w/o an engine installed), and first flew on 26 October.
    Shown here is the only known flyable P51a:

    Attached; P-51c flown by the 332 Tuskegee Airmen

    Attached Files:

    Last edited: Feb 7, 2018
  12. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    1943 Mammoth Martin Mars transport. Today, this one is in fire fighting service in Canada
    Last edited: Feb 7, 2018
  13. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    Legacy of the Flying Wing -- Jack Northrop's dream

    Northrop N-1M https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_N-1M
    first prototype, First flight 3 July 1940

    Northrop N-9M https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_N-9M
    First flight 27 December 1942

    Northrop YB-35 pusher prop https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_YB-35
    First flight 25 June 1946
    Maximum speed: 393 mph (632 km/h)
    Range: 8,150 mi (13,100 km)
    Service ceiling: 39,700 ft (12,100 m)

    Northrop YB-49 jet version https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_YB-49
    First flight 21 October 1947
    Maximum speed: 493 mph (793 km/h)
    Range: 9,978 mi (16,057 km) maximum
    Service ceiling: 45,700 ft (13,900 m)
    The YB-49 never entered production, being passed over in favor of the more conventional
    Convair B-36 piston-driven design.

    Northrop B-2 Spirit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_Grumman_B-2_Spirit
    First flight 17 July 1989
    Maximum speed: Mach 0.95 (550 knots, 630 mph, 1,010 km/h) at 40,000 ft altitude
    Range: 6,000 nmi (11,100 km (6,900 mi))
    Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,200 m)

    Attached Files:

    Last edited: Feb 7, 2018
  14. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    1959 produced the X15 ROCKET plane

    Speed, Range & Service Ceiling are all classified
    Last edited: Feb 6, 2018
  15. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    1964 produced the high altitude SR71 -- [ U2 in lower frame ]

    and baring a fatal inflight accident, would have seen the Mac 2 XB70 Valkyrie
    The red tailed F-104 yaw'd left, severed the right vertical and rolled over into the left, disabling both aircraft.
    Last edited: Feb 8, 2018
  16. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    The 1970 Tomcat was very special

    Name: Grumman F14 Tomcat

    Circa: 1970

    Notable facts:
    Inherited F-111B Technology
    The AWG-9 avionics has several search and tracking modes,
    a maximum of 24 targets can be tracked simultaneously,
    and six can be engaged (aka attacked)

    Automaticlly sweeping back wings
    Mach-2 capability
    Spoilers replaced ailerons (moving only up on the inboard turn)​

    retired from the U.S. Navy's active fleet on 22 September 2006,
    having been supplanted by the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
    (initial Grumman costs ~$40m/per, Boeing ~$20m/per;
    On average, an F-14 requires nearly 50 maintenance hours for every flight hour,
    while the Super Hornet requires five to 10 maintenance hours for every flight hour)​

    Last edited: Feb 7, 2018
  17. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    The Boeing CH-47 Chinook; 21 September 1961

    An American twin-engine, tandem-rotor, heavy-lift helicopter developed by American
    rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol (later known as Boeing Rotorcraft Systems).
    The CH-47 is among the heaviest lifting Western helicopters.

    Number built Over 1,200 as of 2012
    Capacity: 33–55 troops
    Payload: 24,000 lb
    Max. takeoff weight: 50,000 lb
    Maximum speed: 170 knots (196 mph, 315 km/h)
    Cruise speed: 160 kt (184 mph, 296 km/h)
    Range: 400 nmi (450 mi, 741 km)
    Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6100 m)
    Rate of climb: 1,522 ft/min (7.73 m/s)

    STILL in production as of 2017


    The more classical configuration is the single rotor, as seen in the Sea Stallion


    Autorotation is a state of flight in which the main rotor system of a helicopter or similar aircraft turns by the action of air moving up through the rotor, as with an autogyro, rather than engine power driving the rotor.[1][2][3] The term autorotation dates to a period of early helicopter development between 1915 and 1920, and refers to the rotors turning without the engine.[4] It is analogous to the gliding flight of a fixed-wing aircraft. The most common use of autorotation in helicopters is to safely land the aircraft in the event of an engine failure or tail-rotor failure.

    With a single rotor, this procedure works well - - what happens with a two rotor system?
    The Chinook does well enough by disengaging the remaining engine and proceeding with the autorotation. hmm; Look at the V22 Osprey below!!
    Last edited: Feb 11, 2018
  18. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    1967 Hawker Harrier

    The Harrier, informally referred to as the Harrier Jump Jet, is a family of jet-powered attack aircraft capable of vertical/short takeoff and landing operations (V/STOL). Originally developed by UK manufacturer Hawker Siddeley in the 1960s,

    The Hawker Siddeley Harrier is the first generation-version and is also known as the AV-8A Harrier; it was used by multiple air forces, including the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Marine Corps (USMC) which deploys it in close ground support. The Sea Harrier is a naval strike/air defence fighter derived from the Hawker Siddeley.

    Uses the British aero engine manufacturer Bristol Engine Company that they were designing an innovative vectored thrust engine, British aviation conglomerate Hawker Aircraft developed their own design which they proposed for an aeroplane that could meet an existing NATO specification calling for a "Light Tactical Support Fighter".[1] Bristol's projected vectored thrust engine, the name Pegasus

    Several operators have announced their intention to supplement or replace their Harrier fleets with the STOVL variant of the F-35 Lightning II, designated as the F-35B.
    Last edited: Feb 11, 2018
  19. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    Boeing V22 Osprey, Tilt Wing
    First flight 19 March 1989

    24 troops (seated), 32 troops (floor loaded), or
    20,000 lb (9,070 kg) of internal cargo

    Max. takeoff weight: 60,500 lb (27,400 kg) (self-deploy/long runway)
    Maximum rolling takeoff weight: 57,000 lb (STOL)
    Maximum vertical takeoff weight: 52,600 lb[51] (23,859 kg)
    Maximum speed: 275 knots (509 km/h, 316 mph[286])
    Stall speed: 110 kn[74] (126 mph, 204 km/h) in airplane mode
    Range: 879 nmi (1,011 mi, 1,627 km)
    Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (7,620 m)
    Rate of climb: 2,320–4,000[74] ft/min (11.8 m/s)

    Designed to be the replacement for the CH-47 Chinook, circa 1961


    Osprey on approach to a carrier landing:

    An engine out problem can not be handled by the normal helicopter autorotation procedure, as the forces will rotate the fuselage and become fatal :sigh:
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2018
  20. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    Lockheed-Martin F-22 Raptor (air-superiority fighter)
    August 1997

    Mac 2.5
    Range: >1,600 nmi
    Service ceiling: >65,000 ft

    Featuring, Thrust Vectoring also in the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II

    F-22: Two engine

    F-35: Single engine
  21. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    Notable Lockheed Aircraft; Kelly Johnson & the 'Skunk Works'

    Lockheed Model Number
    Date Description Notes
    Vega 07/04/27 six-passenger monoplane Amelia Earhart
    8 Sirius 1929
    9 Orion April, 1931
    10 Electra 02/23/34 twin-engine transport Amelia Earhart
    15 PV-1 Ventura 07/31/41 naval patrol bomber
    18 Lodestar 09/21/39 passenger transport (military version, C-60 cargo transport)
    21 Ventura patrol bomber
    22 P-38 Lightning 01/27/39 World War II fighter
    49 Constellation 01/09/43 four-engine airliner C-121
    1649 Starliner 10/11/56 final version of Constellation
    80 P-80 Shooting Star 06/10/44 United States' first operational jet fighter 'P' for pursuit
    C-130 Hercules 08/23/54 four-engine medium transport 1954 to the present
    F-104 Starfighter 02/28/54 supersonic interceptor
    85 P-3 Orion 04/15/61 military patrol aircraft developed from the Electra (88/188)
    87 AH-56A Cheyenne 09/21/67 CL-840, experimental helicopter
    88 L-188 Electra 12/06/57 turboprop airliner
    90 XF-90 06/03/49 jet bomber escort prototype
    91 L-2000 never flown proposed supersonic transport (SST)
    93 L-1011 Tristar 11/16/70 tri-engine, widebody airliner Commercial Airliner
    94 S-3 Viking 01/21/72 submarine hunter
    300 C-141 Starlifter 12/17/63 large jet transport
    329 JetStar 09/04/57 business jet
    351 U-2 08/04/55 CL-282, high-altitude spyplane Cuban Missile Crisis; Francis Gary Powers
    500 C-5 Galaxy 06/30/68 large jet transport
    645 YF-22 Raptor 09/29/90 air superiority stealth fighter
    Hudson 12/10/38 bomber, reconnaissance aircraft WW-II
    A-12 Oxcart 04/26/62 CIA supersonic spyplane Became SR71
    YF-12 Blackbird 08/07/63 supersonic interceptor prototype
    SR-71 Blackbird 12/22/64 USAF supersonic spyplane
    F-16 Fighting Falcon Active AF Fighter
    F-117 Nighthawk 06/18/81 stealth attack aircraft Gulf War
  22. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    Notable Grumman Aircraft, Primarily Navy
    Grumman Aircraft
    Effectively, “the” Navy aircraft provider. It has been said, “If it's from Grumman, it doesn't break”

    The "Cats"
    Other fighter aircraft
    Electronic warfare aircraft
    Other aircraft

  23. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    Lockheed C-130
    (with 60 years of service, there's LOTS to say)

    First flight 23 August 1954
    Status STILL In service
    Produced 1954–present
    Number built Over 2,500 as of 2015[1]
    "Fat Albert"

    • AC-130 Spectre/Spooky
    • DC-130
    • EC-130
    • HC-130
    • KC-130
    • LC-130
    • MC-130
    • WC-130
    • L-100 Hercules
    • C-130J Super Hercules

    "Puff the magic dragon" (Viet Nam era AC-130)

    Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop, medevac, and cargo transport aircraft. STOL (Short Takeoff & Landing) is a built-in "given". When absolutely necessary, the JATO feature can be used to get airborne in literally FEET!


    The C-130 Hercules is the longest continuously produced military aircraft at over 60 years, with the updated Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules currently being produced.

    Soup du Jour: C-130 Short Field Landings. see the writeup @ http://www.wingsoverkansas.com/alford/a833/

    The weather conditions (Antarctica) are treacherous. ... Because of the temperature -- which can drop as low as 50 degrees below zero -- the Guard's LC-130 aircraft are equipped with ski-like landing gear and sometimes drift over ice as loadmasters drop equipment from the cargo door. Engines are never shutoff as the oil will quickly freeze and it will be time for the Chelsea Flower Show before you get out again. To get out of white-out conditions in desolate areas at high altitudes, the planes employ takeoff rockets to get airborne at a safe speed.

    The operation has been ongoing for 60 years. see https://www.military.com/daily-news...e-air-forces-vital-mission-in-antarctica.html


    Service record:
    Here are five of the many amazing milestones in the Herc’s career:

    1) Since the initial flight of the first production C-130 in 1955, nearly three thousand of these aircraft have been built. Over sixty nations fly the Hercules, the most prolific model of which is the C-130H. Over 1,200 H-models rolled off the production line until 1996, when the C-130J Super Hercules came online.

    2) The C-130 landed in Antarctica for the first time in 1959, using conventional landing gear. A follow-on version of the Herc, the LC-130, has ski-equipped landing gear and JATO bottles to help with takeoffs from the snow and ice.

    3) The biggest conventional weapon in the Pentagon’s arsenal was designed specifically to be dropped by the special operations variant of the Hercules, the MC-130. Known as MOAB, for Massive Ordnance Air Burst (or “mother of all bombs”), this 22,600-pound bomb is over thirty feet long and has a diameter of more than three feet.

    4) The Hercules holds the record for the largest and heaviest aircraft to ever land aboard a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. During October and November 1963, a C-130 conducted 29 touch-and-go landings, 21 unarrested, full-stop landings, and 21 unassisted takeoffs from the USS Forrestal.

    5) The AC-130U also holds the record for the longest sustained flight by a Hercules. In October of 1997, two AC-130s flew 36 hours nonstop from Air Force Special Operations Command’s headquaters at Hurlburt Field, Florida to South Korea. The pair of gunships were refueled seven times by KC-135s and took on over 400,000 pounds of fuel.​

    Fire Service: Stress loads are exponential and heavy loads in high-Gs are nasty:
    holdum323 likes this.
  24. captaincranky

    captaincranky TechSpot Addict Posts: 14,518   +3,702

    I believe the P-51 was the first fighter aircraft to introduce a "laminar flow airfoil". This is interesting because the thickest part of the airfoil occurs well behind the normal 30% or so of the chord, which is standard in all non laminar flow designs.

    The US sold Mustangs to the British at the beginning of WW2, but they were delivered with under performing engines, and thus were relegated to ground attack duties. The Spitfires of the day, could fly circles around them. They weren't a true "air superiority fighter", until British engines, (Rolls-Royce "Merlin"), were installed. The Brits called the early P-51s "Castrated Mustangs".

  25. jobeard

    jobeard TS Ambassador Topic Starter Posts: 12,562   +1,441

    The P-51a was called the Apache and had the same engine as the P-40 Warhawk (Flying Tigers)
    • Powerplant: Allison V-1710-39 liquid-cooled V12 engine, 1,150 hp (858 kW)

    P-51(b,c,d): aka Mustang
    • Powerplant: Rools Royce Packard V-1650-7 (the Merlin) liquid-cooled V-12, with a 2 stage intercooled supercharger, 1,490 hp (1,111 kW) at 3,000 rpm;[116] 1,720 hp (1,280 kW) at WEP
    The Apache could not fly at the altitude (20k limit) necessary to support the bombers (40k) and were thus relegated to ground support.

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