Ubuntu Server Edition
Ubuntu is a community developed, linux-based operating system that is perfect for laptops, desktops and servers.
Download Ubuntu Server 12.10 to get the latest features (including the Folsom release of OpenStack) or stay with Ubuntu 12.04.1 LTS for extended support.
Ubuntu Server also includes a network-based provisioning system that uses Ubuntuís Metal-as-a-Service (MAAS) tool. Based on the industry-standard PXE network-boot protocol, MAAS enables the rapid, automated provisioning of many systems simultaneously.
Canonicalís Landscape further integrates MAAS technology with enterprise-class support for systems management and compliance requirements.
Ubuntu 12.10 ships the latest Openstack release, codenamed Folsom, improvements to MAAS and the latest Argonaut LTS release of Ceph, a highly scalable distributed object storage solution.
These technologies further position Ubuntu Server as the best OS for scale-out computing. Quality also had a strong focus with continuous integration, deployment and testing of upstream OpenStack commits and automated testing of all cloud images on Amazon EC2 from 12.04 forward.
- Ubuntu 12.10 includes the Folsom release of Openstack. Openstack projects supported in 12.10 include: Nova, Glance, Swift, Keystone, Horizon, Cinder and Quantum.
- Openstack components are deployable via Juju Charms.
- Openstack Folsom is also available for Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS in the Ubuntu Cloud Archive.
- ARM support added.
- Metal as a Service makes it easy to set up the hardware on which to deploy any service that needs to scale up and down dynamically.
- MAAS now supports ARM. This enables Juju use in ARM bare metal deployments.
- MAAS has undergone significant re-factoring for improved scalability. The reliance on Cobbler has been removed.
- MAAS has direct support for remote server management using IPMI.
- MAAS now supports SSL both for the Web UI and any API calls.
- MAAS allows you to automatically assign tags based on hardware information.
- MAAS tags can be used as constraints for juju deployment of services.
- MAAS can now handle DHCP configuration centrally for multiple cluster controllers.
- Juju is now enabled in ARM bare metal deployments using MAAS.
- The MAAS provider supports the standard set of constraints (arch, mem, cpu). You can also use tags as constraint criteria.
- The Juju local provider now uses the official Ubuntu Cloud Images, providing a more consistent experience with images used in public clouds such as Amazon EC2.
- Charm Store policy, and Charm Store release policy defined as well as charm maintainers identified
- OpenStack provider updates for Folsom compatibility
- Serializer performance enhancements (when libyaml is present)
- Format: 2 support for charms (which eliminates usage of python-only formatting in favor of json)
- Ubuntu 12.10 provides Apache Tomcat 7 as the default, supported version of Tomcat. Existing installations of tomcat6 will continue to function; its recommended that users upgrade to the tomcat7 package as soon as possible.
- Apache Solr has been update to the latest 3.6.1 release. Apache Solr provides a horizontally scalable indexing and search platform based on Apache Lucene.
- Jenkins has been updated to version 1.466.2, the latest LTS release from the Jenkins project.
- KVM has been update to version 1.2.0.
- LXC has been updated to version 0.8.0, improvements include:
- Migration of containers from OpenVZ to LXC has been eased with the addition of hooks at various point in a container's lifetime.
- Customization of container security profiles has been eased by a reorganization of the apparmor profiles.
- Nesting of containers has been made easier with custom apparmor profiles.
- Improved container security with support for seccomp2 profiles and simple ecryptfs-backed containers.
- Improved container automation with a new Python LXC API.
- Xen has been updated to version 4.1.3.
- Libvirt has been updated to version 0.9.13, which includes support for Ceph RBD volume snapshots.
- Open vSwitch has been updated to version 1.4.3.
- Ceph has been updated 0.48.2, the latest Argonaut LTS release.
- Ceph provides a highly scalable distributed object storage technology and has been tested with XFS and ext4 during this development cycle.
- Packages are now provided for the Ceph RADOS Gateway, a S3 and Swift compatible RESTful object storage solution backed by Ceph RADOS.
- gperftools support on x86 architectures for improved memory allocation performance.
- Automated deployment using Juju Charms.
- Ubuntu 12.10 features the Floodlight OpenFlow network controller. Floodlight can be used with Openstack Quantum to provide full network control in cloud deployments.
- Calxeda's EnergyCore ECX-1000 ("highbank") joins Marvell's ARMADA XP in the lineup of supported server-grade ARM SoCs on Ubuntu Server. Support has also been back-ported to Ubuntu 12.04 LTS.
- Chef 10.12.0 has been re-introduced to Ubuntu in-conjunction with OpsCode.
- Puppet has been updated to version 2.7.18.
- Query2, a new meta-data service for describing the Ubuntu Cloud Images and their availability, has been made available for testing and comment. This new meta-data service provides a verbose, machine-readable JSON formatted file that exhaustively describes the currently available Ubuntu Cloud Images hosted on cloud-images.ubuntu.com and official Ubuntu images in public clouds (currently limited to Amazon EC2). The "Query2" data format is open for comment, and as such may change.
- Additional Amazon AWS tools Autoscaling, Cloudwatch, and ElastiCache now available.
- cloud-init support for config drive v2 added.
- the default user 'ubuntu' is no longer pre-baked into the images, but is now created by cloud-init. Further, using cloud-init cloud-config, users can be created at launch time, including the option of user-less instances.
- A new package 'overlayroot' added as part of cloud-initramfs-tools allows easy utilization overlayfs for the root filesystem. This allows you to boot with changes made to filesystems to be diverted to another filesystem. The second filesystem can be encrypted, a tmpfs, or another disk. This is useful as a cloud-guest and is used by MAAS's ephemeral environment.
- Due to a binary naming issue between the node and nodejs packages, nodejs now ships with its binary installed to /usr/bin/nodejs. Users of nodejs applications sourced from outside of the Ubuntu distribution should either use the nodejs-legacy package (which continues to provide /usr/bin/node) or migrate their applications to use the /usr/bin/nodejs interpreter.
Ubuntu 12.10 is the first Ubuntu release to support the much debated UEFI Secure Boot, a standard for controlling what software can be run on a computer. Supporting Secure Boot, a part of the Windows 8 certification requirements for client systems, ensures that Ubuntu will continue to provide an "it just works" experience on new hardware.
Due to time pressures, only some flavors released with 12.10 will install and boot on Secure Boot hardware:
- Ubuntu desktop
- Ubuntu server
We expect to enable all other flavors in 13.04.
The tool responsible for migrating user accounts from other operating systems to Ubuntu (migration-assistant) has been removed from the installer.
Linux kernel 3.5.5
The Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal release includes the 3.5.0-17.28 Ubuntu Linux kernel which was based on the v3.5.5 upstream Linux kernel. This is an update from the 3.2.0-23.36 Ubuntu Linux kernel which shipped in Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Precise Pangolin and was based on the v3.2 upstream Linux kernel. Other notable changes with the Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal kernel include:
- Transitioning of the i386 generic-pae flavor to become the generic flavor offering
- Collapsing of the virtual flavor back into the generic flavor
- Homogenizing the entire linux-meta package
- Arrival of a new highbank arm server kernel flavor
- Changing of the default scheduler from cfq to deadline
- Packaging updates for signed kernels
The Ubuntu desktop has begun migrating from Python 2 to Python 3. Most Python applications included in the desktop and their dependent libraries have been ported to Python 3. In most cases, Python 3 versions of libraries are available alongside their Python 2 counterparts. Ported applications will only run with Python 3. Work will continue in Ubuntu 13.04.
If you have your own programs based on Python 2, fear not! Python 2 will continue to be available (as the python package) for the foreseeable future. However, to best support future versions of Ubuntu you should consider porting your code to Python 3. Python/3 has some advice and resources on this.
Ubuntu 12.10 is distributed with an updated default toolchain that includes: GCC 4.7.2 (was GCC 4.6 in 12.04 LTS), a binutils snapshot from the 2.23 branch (was 2.22 in 12.04 LTS), eglibc 2.15, and gdb 7.5.
Further information can be found upstream (GCC-4.7, gdb).
Ubuntu 12.10 ships OpenJDK7 as the default Java implementation. This brings improved performance, new features and better compatibility with other Java 7 implementations.
Use of the OpenJDK6 is now deprecated and the openjdk-6-* packages in universe for Ubuntu 12.10 will not be provided in future releases of Ubuntu.
The basic steps to install Ubuntu Server Edition from CD or USB stick are the same for installing any operating system. Unlike the desktop version, Ubuntu Server does not include a graphical installation program. Instead the Server Edition uses a console menu-based process.
- First, download and burn the ISO file.
- Boot the system from the CD-ROM drive.
- At the boot prompt you will be asked to select the language.
- Select 'basic server install'.
- Enter appropriate options for language, keyboard layout, network configuration, hostname and timezone.
- You can then choose from several options to configure the hard drive layout. There are many ways disk layout can be configured. For detailed information please read the installing from CD documentation.
- The Ubuntu base system is then installed.
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